Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABC)
Atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) are widespread layers of brownish haze of air pollutants, such as aerosol particles (black carbon (BC) and non BC), and precursor gases (e.g. CH4, CO, NMVOCs, NOx), which produce aerosols and ozone. ABCs and their interaction with build-up of greenhouse gases significantly affect the regional climate, hydrological cycle, glacial melting, agriculture production, ecosystem and human health.
Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) programme is addressing the issue of ABCs through measurements, impact assessment, demonstration of mitigation solutions, and creating awareness to underpin the issue at the policy forums. More than 200 scientists are working on ABCs, generating a wealth of science-based knowledge on sources, evidences of significant impacts, and demonstration of mitigation solutions.
ABC programme promote science-policy interface by engaging and providing a common platform to scientists, academia, researchers, students, government and non-government organizations, and international agencies. The objectives of science-policy interface are to create awareness and transfer the science-based knowledge to policy makers so that they can incorporate the knowledge in the policy making process.
ABC helped to develop consensus and effectiveness of available emission reduction technologies. Many governments have responded positively and developed national programmes or supporting national efforts to reduce the emissions of ABCs. ABC programme has also helped to place the ABCs issue in the international agenda.
Prof. Ramanathan Receives Tang Prize Award
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Prof. V. Ramanathan (Chair ABC International Science Team) has won the third Tang Prize Award for sustainable development. Prof. Ramanathan has been studying the effects of greenhouse gases on global warming for the last 50 years. The Tang Prize has recognized him for his contributions to the atmospheric sciences. It is the professor's first major honor from Asia. For detail click here
Hanimaadhoo Edition of PEMPHIS focussed on MCOH
A recent edition of the PEMPHIS was dedicated to Hanimaadhoo Island. The PEMPHIS is an Environmental News Letter of the Ministry of Environment and Energy, Government of Maldives. The edition included a detail article on Maldives Climate Observatory - Hanimaadhoo (MCOH) with an interview of Dr. Krishnakant Budhavant, Resident Scientist of MCOH. In the interview, Dr. Budhavant has discussed regional air pollution and climate change issues and how the measurements conducted at the MCOH are important to address these issues. The scientific contributions of the MCOH Science Team is guiding the policy making process a... Read more..
South Asian Pollution Experiment 2016 (SAPOEX-16)
The South Asian Pollution Experiment 2018 (SAPOEX-18) is now gearing up toward a new large high-intensity campaign to study the Climate Pollutant Outflow from South Asia in period Nov 2017- Mar 2018. The MCOH will serve as the hub for the campaign with additional participating observatories, such as, Delhi (NPL) and Pune (IITM) from India; Univ. Of Dhaka and Bangladesh Climate Observatory Bhola (BCOB) from Bangladesh; and MCO-Gan from Maldives. The objectives of the campaign are to study Mass Absorption Cross Section (MAC) of ambient BC aerosols, optical properties of Brown Carbon (BrC), and differentiation of primary from secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA) in the South Asian out... Read more..
Convergence on climate warming by black carbon aerosols
Scientific interest in the climate effects of black carbon (BC) intensified with the publication of Crutzen and Birks’
(1) report dealing with the ejection of large amounts of smoke into the atmosphere after a major nuclear war. A key component of smoke is BC, which is the strongest absorber of visible solar radiation. BC solar absorption became a central issue in climate change research when a synthesis of satellite, in situ, and ground observations concluded (2) that the global solar absorptio... Read more
Atmospheric Brown Clouds - Emission Inventory Manual
ABC Emission Inventory Manual (ABC-EIM) discussed the methodology for compilation of emissions of major pollutants from various sectors. ABC-EIM is accompanied with an Excel-based workbook, which can be used for compilation and estimation of emissions of the ABCs precursors. ABC EIM has been developed after reviewing the structure and content of other major emission inventories.The ABC-EIM has added emphasis on open biomass burning emissions. This manual presents methods for temporal and spatial... Read more
Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on Asia, summary
Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on Asia (summary) was the first integrated assessment report on ABCs with focus on Asia. It disussed the impacts of ABCs on regional climate, water resources, precipitation, agriculture production, glacier melting, and health. It reveals that the ABCs is a global phenomenon, spread heterogeneously over several parts of the world. The ABCs with build-up of greenhouse gases (GHGs) resulting a global warming and possessing major enviro... Read more
Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on Asia (Full report)
Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on Asia (full Report) was the first integrated assessment report on ABCs with focus on Asia. It disussed the impacts of ABCs on regional climate, water resources, precipitation, agriculture production, glacier melting, and health. It reveals that the ABCs is a global phenomenon, spread heterogeneously over several parts of the world. The ABCs with build-up of greenhouse gases (GHGs) resulting a global warming and possessing major en... Read more
The Asian Brown Cloud: Climate and Other Environmental Impacts
The Asian Brown Cloud: Climate and Other Environmental Impacts is the first comprehensive study of the South Asian haze and its impact on climate. It is largely based on the studies of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX). It provides a holistic view of the large brownish haze layer and its impact on the radiative heating of the atmosphere and the surface for South Asia and the adjacent Indian Ocean. It also discusses preliminary findings with respect to the impact of this haze on regional tempe... Read more
Call for abstract and registration for ABC-SLCP International Symposium to be held in Tokyo, Japan during 21-23 July 2014
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An International Symposium for ABC (Atmospheric Brown Cloud) and SLCP (Short-Lived Climate Pollutant) will be held at the University of Tokyo, Japan during July 21-23, 2014. The symposium will cover the scientific findings of ABCs observations, modeling simulations, and health impact of SLCPs. The seminar will provide an opportunity for strategic discussions to promote cohesion among various air pollution related projects in Asia and the Pacific such as ABC, CCAC, RECCA, and S-12. First Announcement (last date for abstract and registration: 25 April 2014). Last date for abstract and registration extended till 2 May 2014
ABC in the Media